Moringa Oleifera Oil is rich in sugar-containing compounds, rhamnosus and quite a unique group of compounds called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates (Fahey et al, 2001; Bennett et al, 2003). The bark has been reported to contain two alkaloids, namely moringine and moringinine (Kerharo, 1969).
Vanilla, β-sitosterol , β-cytostenone, 4-hydroxymellin and octacosanoic acid has been isolated from the stem Moringa plants (Faizi et al., 1994a).
Moringa sap is known to contain L-arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid, and L’Rhamnose, mannose and xylose, polysaccharides consisting of L-galactose acid, and glucuronic-mannose (Bhattacharya et al., 1982).
Moringa oleifera oil contains nine amino acids, sucrose, D-glucose, alkaloids, waxes, quercetin and kaempferol; also rich in potassium and calcium (Ruckmani et al., 1998). Moringa flowers have also been reported contains several pigment flavonoids such as alkaloids, kaempferol, rhamnetin, isoquercitrin and kaempferitrin (Faizi et al.,1994a, Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003).
Thiocarbamate and glycoside compound antihypertensives isothiocyanate have been isolated from the acetate extract phase ethanol pods of Moringa (Faizi et al., 1998). The cytokinins have been shown to be contained in Moringa fruit (Nagar et al., 1982). A new discovery has shown the phytochemical structure isolated from the extract ethanol Moringa, which contains O-ethyl-4- (α-Lrhamnosyloxy) benzyl carbamate together with seven known bioactive compounds, 4 (α-L-rhamnosyl oxy) benzyl-isothiocyanate, niazimicin, 3-O- (6′-O-oleoil-β-D-glucopyranosyl) -β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-Glucopyranoside, niazirin, β-sitosterol and glycerol-1- (9- octadecanoate).
Moringa leaves are a source of natural antioxidants good because of the content of various types of compounds antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids (Anwar et al., 2005; Makkar and Becker, 1996). High acid concentration ascorbate, estrogen and β-sitosterol, iron, calcium, phosphorus, copper, vitamins A, B and C, α-tocopherol, riboflavin, nicotinic, folic acid, pyridoxine, β-carotene, protein, and especially essential amino acids such as methionine, cystine, and tryptophan lysine found in the leaves and pods, making it a dietary supplement which is almost ideal (Makkar and Becker, 1996).
The sterol composition of Moringa seed oil consists mainly of campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and clerosterol accompanied by 24- methylenecholesterol, Δ7-campestanol, stigmastanol and 28-isoavenasterol (Tsaknis et al, 1999 .; Anwar and Bhanger, 2003; Anwar et al, 2005).
The sterol composition of the main fraction of Moringa seed oil is very different from most oils consumed conventional (Rossell, 1991). The fatty acid composition of Moringa seed oil contains high category oleic acid (C18: 1), namely around 67.90% -76.00%. Besides that too contains other important component fatty acids such as, C16: 0 (6.04% – 7.80%), C18: 0 (4.14% -7.60%), C20: 0 (2.76% – 4.00%), and C22: 0 (5.00% -6.73%) (Tsaknis et al., 1999, Anwar and Bhanger, 2003; Anwar et al, 2005).
It has been reported, Moringa oleifera oil is also a good source of various tocopherols (α, γ and δ) with concentrations between 98.82–134.42 mg / kg, 27.90–93.70 mg / kg and 48.00–71.16 mg / kg (Anwar and Bhanger, 2003; Tsaknis et al, 1999.). Antioxidants can be used as a preventive measure against hepatotoxicity through the mechanism of preventing an increase in MDA and an increase in GSH, and preventing the increase in liver physiological enzymes and liver damage (Soetanto et al., 2005).
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