Hyperuricemia is a type of rheumatic disease whose symptoms can be recognized easily, including pain in the joints. Joint pain is closely related to connective tissue activity and metabolism of the musculoskeletal system. Although it does not cause death, the losses caused by this disease have an impact on the people with the disease due to decreased physical abilities. However, pure moringa oil can help with this condition.
Patients with this disease are found in several regions in Indonesia, including the results of a study conducted by Silvia (1985) which states that the percentage of hyperuricemia and gout in Indonesia is very high, especially the people of Java and South Sulawesi who live on the coast, with their daily habits of consuming alcohol and fish. the sea. Meanwhile, according to Darmawan (1998) in Central Java in 1989 among the 4,683 people aged 15-45 years studied, it was found that 8% had high uric acid (7.5% men and 0.5% women).
Hyperuricemia and gout generally affect men, and obese men have a higher tendency to develop the disease. The percentage of hyperuricemia and gout attacks men is very high compared to women who just appear after menopause. This is due to the secretion of reproductive hormones (estrogen and progesterone) which help in the removal of metabolic waste (Wibowo, 2004). According to Guyton (1996) the reproductive hormone which helps the disposal process stimulates the development of follicles which can increase the rate of cell proliferation, inhibiting the activity of the second messenger system of the adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cycle. cAMP according to Soewolo (2000) is thought to be able to activate the protein kinase enzyme which accelerates metabolic activity, including purine and pyrimidine metabolism.
Prevention and Treatment
The existing treatment and prevention of hyperuricemia is by reducing the level of uric acid production or increasing its excretion. Two types of drugs used to treat hyperuricemia are uricosuric drugs and xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Uricosuric drugs work to improve the cleanliness of the kidneys from uric acid by inhibiting tubular reabsorption of uric acid in the kidneys. The drawback of uricosuric drugs is the need to alkaline the urine which is contraindicated in patients with kidney function disorders.
Currently, only allopurinol is still allowed to be used to reduce uric acid production. Allopurinol is given when uricosuric drugs fail to reduce blood uric acid levels to below 7 mg / dl or if the patient is intolerant of uricosuric drugs. However, allopurinol can cause side effects such as nephropathy and allergic reactions, so a hyperuricemic drug that has higher effectiveness and safety is needed (Schlesinger, 2002).
For this purpose, the treatment carried out includes:
- Prevention of Joint Inflammation (SIS)
All types of NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory and analgesic) can be given in attacks of hyperuricemia, but the results will be different (Ganiswara, 1995). Until now, kolkicin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of attacks from hyperuricemia to acute gouty arthritis or its prevention in lower doses (Rahardjo and Tan, 1991). Kholkisin is an alkaloid obtained from plants. This drug has been used as a remedy for gout in the sixth century by doctors in Arabia.
Kholkisin has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties specifically for gout with a fast effect, namely 0.5 – 2 hours after an acute attack. Its working power is estimated based on the phagocytosis inhibition of leukocytes so that the cycle of inflammation is broken (Ganiswara, 1995).
- Hyperuricemia Management
Treatment for temporary hyperuricemia can be grouped into two groups, namely prevention that can reduce uric acid levels, known as uricosuric drugs that accelerate uric acid excretion by the renal tubules and prevention by inhibiting xanthine oxidase or xanthine dehydrogenase (Tehupeiory, 1996).
The mechanism of action of uricosurics in the treatment of hyperuricemia is to inhibit uric acid reabsorption by the renal tubules, so that a lot of uric acid is excreted with urine. In order to prevent uric acid from settling in the urinary tract due to its high concentration in urine, it is recommended that you often drink about three liters of water per day (Raharjo and Tan, 1979).
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors
The drug that is often used as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor is allopurinol. The mechanism of action of allopurinol is by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme, which is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down purine compounds (hypoxanthine and xanthine) into uric acid. The chemical structure of allopurinol is very similar to xanthine so that the enzyme xanthine oxidase acts on this substance, as a result of which the conversion of xanthine to uric acid also decreases (Raharjo and Tan, 1979).
Pure Moringa Oil
This herbal oil can actually heal hyperuricemia. Being herbal means the oil itself does not contain any dangerous side effects to people with the disease. Thus, pure moringa oil is highly suggested for people with hyperuricemia.
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